"It is outrageous from our perspective that a country will sit there and lecture us, and make demands. "We demand the immediate release"... Really?" Saudi Foreign Minister Adel Al-Jubeir said.
"I think the Canadian government is only beginning to understand how offensive their conduct has been to the Saudi government," former Canadian Foreign Minister John Baird said in an interview.
Saudi Arabia has also cut diplomatic ties with Canada, frozen all new trade and investment and canceled flights via its national carrier to Toronto.
Seen as the modernizing face of Saudi Arabia, Mohammed bin Salman was promoted to second-in-line to the throne on Wednesday.
The blogger was sentenced to death in 2014, but human rights groups say he is a prisoner of conscience.
Saudi Arabia has rejected a call to release Badawi and allow him to join his family in Canada.
The petition marks a year since the liberal blogger received his first lashes in the Gulf Kingdom.
Badawi's wife says his children hoped for his return "before the end of the year."
Raif Badawi has been on a hunger strike since Tuesday, according to his wife, Ensaf Haidar.
The user compared the death sentence handed down to Palestinian poet Ashraf Fayadh to the punishments meted out by Islamic State.
Badawi was sentenced to 10 years in prison and 1,000 lashes for comments made on his blog.
Saudi Arabia executed 2,200 people between January 1985 and June 2015.
Saudi Arabia has come under fire for sentencing Badawi to 1,000 lashes in 2013.
Raif Badawi's family says they have information suggesting a Saudi judge will retry the controversial blogger on charges of apostasy.
The case of a Saudi blogger sentenced to 1,000 lashes has been widely criticized by Western governments.
Writer Raif Badawi is subject to weekly flogging for "insulting Islam".
Raif Badawi was arrested in 2012 for setting up an online forum for public debate.